On the anniversary of Charlie Hebdo, dissenting voices must be protected

Thursday, January 07, 2016
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Photo: Valentina Cala/Flickr

On the anniversary of the brutal attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo we, the undersigned, reaffirm our commitment to the defense of the right to freedom of expression, even when that right is being used to express views that some may consider offensive. 

The Charlie Hebdo attack, which left 11 dead and 12 wounded, was a horrific reminder of the violence to which journalists, artists and other critical voices are subjected in a global atmosphere marked by increasing intolerance of dissent. The killings inaugurated a year that has proved especially challenging for proponents of freedom of opinion. 

Non-state actors perpetrated violence against their critics largely with impunity, including the brutal murders of four secular bloggers in Bangladesh by Islamist extremists, and the killing of an academic, M M Kalburgi, who wrote critically against Hindu fundamentalism in India. 

Despite the turnout of world leaders on the streets of Paris in an unprecedented display of solidarity with free expression following the Charlie Hebdo murders, artists and writers faced intense repression from governments throughout the year. In Malaysia, cartoonist Zunar is facing a possible 43-year prison sentence for alleged 'sedition'; in Iran, cartoonistAtena Fardaghani is serving a 12-year sentence for a political cartoon; and in Saudi Arabia, Palestinian poet Ashraf Fayadh was sentenced to death for his secular views, including as expressed in his poetry. 

Perhaps the most far-reaching threats to freedom of expression in 2015 came from governments ostensibly motivated by security concerns. Following the attack on Charlie Hebdo, 11 interior ministers from European Union countries including France, Britain and Germany issued a statement in which they called on Internet service providers to identify and remove online content 'that aims to incite hatred and terror.' In July, the French Senate passed a controversial law giving sweeping new powers to the intelligence agencies to spy on citizens, which the UN Human Rights Committee categorised as “excessively broad”. 

This kind of governmental response is chilling because a particularly insidious threat to our right to free expression is self-censorship. In order to fully exercise the right to freedom of expression, individuals must be able to communicate without fear of intrusion by the State. Under international law, the right to freedom of expression also protects speech that some may find shocking, offensive or disturbing. Importantly, the right to freedom of expression means that those who feel offended also have the right to challenge others through free debate and open discussion, or through peaceful protest. 

On the anniversary of the Charlie Hebdo attacks, we, the undersigned, call on all Governments to:

  • Uphold their international obligations to protect the rights of freedom of expression and information for all, and especially for journalists, writers, artists and human rights defenders to publish, write and speak freely;
  • Promote a safe and enabling environment for those who exercise their right to freedom of expression, and ensure that journalists, artists and human rights defenders may perform their work without interference;
  • Combat impunity for threats and violations aimed at journalists and others exercising their right to freedom of expression, and ensure impartial, timely and thorough investigations that bring the executors and masterminds behind such crimes to justice. Also ensure victims and their families have expedient access to appropriate remedies;
  • Repeal legislation which restricts the right to legitimate freedom of expression, especially vague and overbroad national security, sedition, obscenity, blasphemy and criminal defamation laws, and other legislation used to imprison, harass and silence critical voices, including on social media and online;
  • Ensure that respect for human rights is at the heart of communication surveillance policy. Laws and legal standards governing communication surveillance must therefore be updated, strengthened and brought under legislative and judicial control. Any interference can only be justified if it is clearly defined by law, pursues a legitimate aim and is strictly necessary to the aim pursued.

Signed,


PEN International 
ActiveWatch – Media Monitoring Agency 
Adil Soz - International Foundation for Protection of Freedom of Speech 
Africa Freedom of Information Centre 
ARTICLE 19 
Bahrain Center for Human Rights 
Belarusian Association of Journalists 
Brazilian Association for Investigative Journalism 
Bytes for All 
Cambodian Center for Human Rights 
Canadian Journalists for Free Expression 
Center for Independent Journalism - Romania 
Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility 
Comité por la Libre Expresión - C-Libre 
Committee to Protect Journalists 
Electronic Frontier Foundation 
Foundation for Press Freedom - FLIP 
Freedom Forum 
Fundamedios - Andean Foundation for Media Observation and Study 
Globe International Center 
Independent Journalism Center - Moldova 
Index on Censorship 
Initiative for Freedom of Expression - Turkey 
Institute for the Studies on Free Flow of Information 
Instituto de Prensa y Libertad de Expresión - IPLEX 
Instituto Prensa y Sociedad de Venezuela 
International Federation of Journalists 
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions 
International Press Institute 
International Publishers Association 
Journaliste en danger 
Maharat Foundation 
MARCH 
Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance 
Media Foundation for West Africa 
National Union of Somali Journalists 
Observatorio Latinoamericano para la Libertad de Expresión - OLA 
Pacific Islands News Association 
Palestinian Center for Development and Media Freedoms - MADA 
PEN American Center 
PEN Canada 
South East European Network for Professionalization of Media 
Vigilance pour la Démocratie et l’État Civique 
World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters - AMARC 

Danish PEN 
English PEN 
Finnish PEN 
Flanders PEN 
French PEN 
German PEN 
Icelandic PEN 
Kurdish PEN 
PEN Afrikaans 
PEN Algeria 
PEN Bolivia 
PEN Bosnia 
PEN Colombia 
PEN Croatia 
PEN Eritrea in Exile 
PEN Ethiopia 
PEN Japan 
PEN Kenya 
PEN Lebanon 
PEN Mali 
PEN Netherlands 
PEN Nigeria 
PEN Norway 
PEN Peru 
PEN Quebec 
PEN San Miguel 
PEN South Africa 
PEN Trieste 
PEN Turkey 
PEN USA 
PEN Zambia 
Palestinian PEN 
Portuguese PEN 
Russian PEN 
Slovenian PEN 
Wales PEN Cymru

 

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